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Lewis Pugh’s mind-shifting Mt. Everest swim

Lewis Pugh’s mind-shifting Mt. Everest swim

Last year when I was here, I was speaking to you about a swim which I did across the North Pole. And while that swim took place three years ago, I can remember it as if it was yesterday. I remember standing on the edge of the ice, about to dive into the water, and thinking to myself, I have never ever seen any place on this earth which is just so frightening. The water is completely black. The water is minus 1.7 degrees centigrade, or 29 degrees Fahrenheit. It’s flipping freezing in that water. And then a thought came across my mind: if things go pear-shaped on this swim, how long will it take for my frozen body to sink the four and a half kilometers to the bottom of the ocean? And then I said to myself, I’ve just got to get this thought out of my mind as quickly as possible. And the only way I can dive into that freezing cold water and swim a kilometer is by listening to my iPod and really revving myself up, listening to everything from beautiful opera all the way across to Puff Daddy, and then committing myself a hundred percent — there is nothing more powerful than the made-up mind — and then walking up to the edge of the ice and just diving into the water. And that swim took me 18 minutes and 50 seconds, and it felt like 18 days. And I remember getting out of the water and my hands feeling so painful and looking down at my fingers, and my fingers were literally the size of sausages because — you know, we’re made partially of water — when water freezes it expands, and so the cells in my fingers had frozen and expanded and burst. And the most immediate thought when I came out of that water was the following: I’m never, ever going to do another cold water swim in my life again. Anyway, last year, I heard about the Himalayas and the melting of the — (Laughter) and the melting of the glaciers because of climate change. I heard about this lake, Lake Imja. This lake has been formed in the last couple of years because of the melting of the glacier. The glacier’s gone all the way up the mountain and left in its place this big lake. And I firmly believe that what we’re seeing in the Himalayas is the next great, big battleground on this earth. Nearly two billion people — so one in three people on this earth — rely on the water from the Himalayas. And with a population increasing as quickly as it is, and with the water supply from these glaciers — because of climate change — decreasing so much, I think we have a real risk of instability. North, you’ve got China; south, you’ve India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, all these countries. And so I decided to walk up to Mt. Everest, the highest mountain on this earth, and go and do a symbolic swim underneath the summit of Mt. Everest. Now, I don’t know if any of you have had the opportunity to go to Mt. Everest, but it’s quite an ordeal getting up there. 28 great, big, powerful yaks carrying all the equipment up onto this mountain — I don’t just have my Speedo, but there’s a big film crew who then send all the images around the world. The other thing which was so challenging about this swim is not just the altitude. I wanted to do the swim at 5,300 meters above sea level. So it’s right up in the heavens. It’s very, very difficult to breath. You get altitude sickness. I feels like you’ve got a man standing behind you with a hammer just hitting your head all the time. That’s not the worst part of it. The worst part was this year was the year where they decided to do a big cleanup operation on Mt. Everest. Many, many people have died on Mt. Everest, and this was the year they decided to go and recover all the bodies of the mountaineers and then bring them down the mountain. And when you’re walking up the mountain to attempt to do something which no human has ever done before, and, in fact, no fish — there are no fish up there swimming at 5,300 meters — When you’re trying to do that, and then the bodies are coming past you, it humbles you, and you also realize very, very clearly that nature is so much more powerful than we are. And we walked up this pathway, all the way up. And to the right hand side of us was this great Khumbu Glacier. And all the way along the glacier we saw these big pools of melting ice. And then we got up to this small lake underneath the summit of Mt. Everest, and I prepared myself the same way as I’ve always prepared myself, for this swim which was going to be so very difficult. I put on my iPod, I listened to some music, I got myself as aggressive as possible — but controlled aggression — and then I hurled myself into that water. I swam as quickly as I could for the first hundred meters, and then I realized very, very quickly, I had a huge problem on my hands. I could barely breathe. I was gasping for air. I then began to choke, and then it quickly led to me vomiting in the water. And it all happened so quickly: I then — I don’t know how it happened — but I went underwater. And luckily, the water was quite shallow, and I was able to push myself off the bottom of the lake and get up and then take another gasp of air. And then I said, carry on. Carry on. Carry on. I carried on for another five or six strokes, and then I had nothing in my body, and I went down to the bottom of the lake. And I don’t where I got it from, but I was able to somehow pull myself up and as quickly as possible get to the side of the lake. I’ve heard it said that drowning is the most peaceful death that you can have. I have never, ever heard such utter bollocks. (Laughter) It is the most frightening and panicky feeling that you can have. I got myself to the side of the lake. My crew grabbed me, and then we walked as quickly as we could down — over the rubble — down to our camp. And there, we sat down, and we did a debrief about what had gone wrong there on Mt. Everest. And my team just gave it to me straight. They said, Lewis, you need to have a radical tactical shift if you want to do this swim. Every single thing which you have learned in the past 23 years of swimming, you must forget. Every single thing which you learned when you were serving in the British army, about speed and aggression, you put that to one side. We want you to walk up the hill in another two days’ time. Take some time to rest and think about things. We want you to walk up the mountain in two days’ time, and instead of swimming fast, swim as slowly as possible. Instead of swimming crawl, swim breaststroke. And remember, never ever swim with aggression. This is the time to swim with real humility. And so we walked back up to the mountain two days later. And I stood there on the edge of the lake, and I looked up at Mt. Everest — and she is one of the most beautiful mountains on the earth — and I said to myself, just do this slowly. And I swam across the lake. And I can’t begin to tell you how good I felt when I came to the other side. But I learned two very, very important lessons there on Mt. Everest, and I thank my team of Sherpas who taught me this. The first one is that just because something has worked in the past so well, doesn’t mean it’s going to work in the future. And similarly, now, before I do anything, I ask myself what type of mindset do I require to successfully complete a task. And taking that into the world of climate change — which is, frankly, the Mt. Everest of all problems — just because we’ve lived the way we have lived for so long, just because we have consumed the way we have for so long and populated the earth the way we have for so long, doesn’t mean that we can carry on the way we are carrying on. The warning signs are all there. When I was born, the world’s population was 3.5 billion people. We’re now 6.8 billion people, and we’re expected to be 9 billion people by 2050. And then the second lesson, the radical, tactical shift. And I’ve come here to ask you today: what radical tactical shift can you take in your relationship to the environment, which will ensure that our children and our grandchildren live in a safe world and a secure world, and most importantly, in a sustainable world? And I ask you, please, to go away from here and think about that one radical tactical shift which you could make, which will make that big difference, and then commit a hundred percent to doing it. Blog about it, tweet about it, talk about it, and commit a hundred percent, because very, very few things are impossible to achieve if we really put our whole minds to it. So thank you very, very much. (Applause)

100 thoughts on “Lewis Pugh’s mind-shifting Mt. Everest swim”

  1. we need nuclear power pronto. thorium reactors or whatever breeding reactor works. time to shift perspectives!

  2. Wow, this guy is just retarded. I thought he was awesome until he started all the bs about population control.

  3. @drche420 that's fine, but there are a sad amount of people who this is new information too, plus, as amazing as TED is, it's bound to have the occasional not-so-good one's

  4. @WeatherManToBe You just aren't understanding it in a proper way. I'm looking at it in like 4 different ways to try to understand it properly.. before he did all that awful blurb at the end.

  5. @ijjesus
    Err… are you for real? How would redistributing money change anything? The goods and services produced each year are not like dividing up a fixed pie. By changing how you distribute the pie, you change how much pie there is.

    Think about it like this. If you were paying high taxes to pay compulsory charity to the poor, why would you work as hard? In fact, wouldn't you rather be one of the recipients, rather than one of the payers?

  6. @bluebeard2
    I am not talking about "redistributing money" — I am talking about a new monetary system.
    An Equal Money System for the basics – food, shelter, water, suage, education and health – and a Labour system for those who want "luxury items", which is all that is not "basics".

    Realize that the value we give to money is what we agree on – thus, may money VALUE LIFE!

    Each HUMAN LIFE = 'x' amount of money as the means of GUARANTEEING A DIGNIFIED LIFE for that new born baby till death.

  7. @bluebeard2
    Do the research — this is being developed — and projects such as the BASIC INCOME GRANT (google it) show the effectiveness and the enormous benefits of such a system.


    there is no excuse or justification for the fact that without money you are dead. This is nonsense.
    Whoever accepts such a statment (no money = no life) is absolutly fucked!

    3 bilion people on less than 2 dolars a day???? fucked up…. SILLY!!!!

  8. @tyrannicoystercult
    "our potential is equal, but our resulting lives are not." — yes, because we do not have EQUAL OPPORTUNITY. Some are born in a golden bed, but most will struggle and constantly worry about money/survival throughout their lives.
    Equal Money to guarantee your physical existence and a labour system if you want to buy luxury items, which is all that it not essencial for your physical existence.
    3 bilion of people on less than 2 dolars a day is madness! No excuse is valid!!

  9. @ijjesus People are also different.
    Some, born in a golden bed, end up being worthless lumps. Others, born in poverty, rise to be captains of industry.
    Do not assume there can be equality of outcome. Down that path lay the guillotine, the firing squad, and genocide.

  10. @ijjesus "I am not talking about "redistributing money""
    Yes, you are. You're just unaware of the reality of every attempt to create equality of outcome.
    Seriously, you need some basic economics to correct your basic errors.
    I suggest mises-org/books/lessons_for_the_young_economist_murphy.pdf

  11. @CurtHowland
    If people are stupid and fuck up their lives – thats their fucking problem.
    The point is simple —- end poverty, end starvation, end corruption. Are agains this?
    You need to do research on this before you assume how things would work out or not. You simply have no clue, as you have just shown the world.

  12. @CurtHowland
    I am talking about EQUAL RIGHT TO LIFE!!!!!! EQUAL ACCESS TO FOOD, WATER, HOUSING, EDUCATION and HEALTH. I am not saying that everyone should dress the same way.

    No no no – todays economists work with todays monetary system — An Equal money system would work differently.

    All we require to do is to change how we value it. Place the value of life in it.
    If you do not get this you are clearly stupid.

  13. @ijjesus "If you do not get this you are clearly stupid."
    If you cannot tell the difference between economics and shouting slogans, then it's not be that's stupid.

  14. What was the Carbon Foot Print of this stunt? I agree we must change our ways to stop climate change. Flying in jets around the world is not change.

  15. @ijjesus ""our potential is equal, but our resulting lives are not." — yes, because we do not have EQUAL OPPORTUNITY."

    Also because some of us work harder than others. Don't believe for a second that if everyone was given the same opportunity everyone would come out on top.

  16. @ijjesus
    Well, I do have a bachelors in economics, so I like to imagine I have something to contribute on the subject.

    What you are talking about IS REDISTRIBUTION. When I work, I create wealth. You're asking that my wealth be redistributed to someone who is less productive than me.

    Production = wealth

    No production = poverty

    If you take nothing from economics, just take that.

    Why I find shocking is how Africa (generally) is so unproductive as to be unable to guarantee a food supply.

  17. People don't have rights. Rights take work. It takes work and effort and sweat to feed children. If you don't make much money, then don't have lots of children. If you are unproductive, you're not entitled to big roast pork dinners. You can only have small rice and vegetable dinners.

    Where did these 'rights' people come from? Why do you have a right to anything? Rights take wealth, work and organisation to make real. They don't just appear because you assert that we 'should' have them.

  18. IMO, This talk was kind of on the weaker side of TED talks. Important topic, sure…but weak nonetheless.

  19. @bluebeard2
    You are giving more value to money than to Life — this is what todays system is about: No money = you are dead. When in fact, if there is no human on this planet, there is no money on this planet – So, LIFE FIRST. Thus, food first, water first, shelter first. There is enough food for everyone! But people STARVE because they have no money! This is ridiculous!!!!! Do you see this?
    I am not saying "give a Ferrari to everyone". I am saying: LIFE IS YOUR BIRTH RIGHT!

  20. @bluebeard2
    Who is less productive than you? He who is working in virtually slavery conditions in a coffe plantation for more than 12 hours just to make it though the day while you enjoy a cup of coffe sitting in front of you pc playing with numbers and making 50 times more money in a day than him? Are you more than him? Is your time more valuable than his? NO!
    So – obviously we must start valuing our labour/time Equaly.

  21. @bluebeard2
    The "american dream" is africa, south america and asia's nightmare.
    Poverty exists because extreme "wealth" exists. The rich in the world create the poor in the world.

    You keep on justifying and excusing the death of MILLIONS of people every year because they had no money to buy food (not because there is not enough food!) in the name of your self-interest.

    Fuck you and your eco-no-ME!
    remember – you reap what you sow — there's a LIFE lesson for you

  22. @nightmathzombieethan Mt. Everest attracts some of the most successful, driven people in the world to it. I doubt the Sherpas think that at all.

  23. @jasonlajoie LOL True (no disrespect intended)….I just thought it's kinda funny just how different our cultures are…. Sherpas live there in such beauty and simplicity, with a whole different way of life and different priorities.Then we show up with all of our high tech gear: our computers, cameras, cellphones, fancy clothing and high tech climbing gear then risk our lives to climb a mountain.Then you have the man in this video, who shows up TO GO SWIMMING! of all things….

  24. My fiance wasn't happy with this decision, but I chose not to have a baby. If we're already noticing problems with the climate and not to mention fossil fuels, and we're 6 billion. Can you imagine what it'll be like for our kids in 50 years? It's going to be hell on earth if we don't change things around right now. But we're so fucking selfish and greedy that we don't want to give up our trivial luxuries, even if it means fucking up the future for our children.

  25. he claims that nature is more powerful than us. but somehow we are also powerful enough to affect our planets entire climate? let alone fix it? sorta contradictory one must say

  26. @Silverstarlightt : Couldn't agree more. It was an amazing exploratory feat he achieved. However, he asks everyone to go home and think about that "one radical tactical shift" they can make to help the environment, and then DOESN'T tell anyone an example of something HE has done. As if the act of swimming there was "his bit"… When in fact, flying a massive team of people and heavy equipment half way round the planet is not helping (if you subscribe to environmental alarmism).

  27. He tells the people to commit to one "radical tactical shift" to ensure a safe and secure world for their children and grandchildren, but the one "radical tactical shift" that makes any difference at all is not to have the damn children and grandchildren in the first place! It is pure hypocrisy to lament the death of Earth and then double your impact by reproducing. There's only one way to reduce our impact and that is by reducing population. Copulate, don't populate!

  28. @ijjesus
    My time is much more valuable than his, yes. That's exactly the point. My productivity is so much higher. I have the benefit of about 25 years of education, in a highly computerised and mechanised economy, where most workers have at least 10, and more often 12, years of education. Plus a long history of slow and steady productivity improvements.

    How could my time not be worth more? The same cannot be said in poorer nations. Production is barely enough to feed the farmer.

  29. @ijjesus
    On the contrary. Poverty in China and India is slowly diappearing due to their rapid economic growth. In fact, trade and productivity in India and China is doing more for their poor than charity ever could have!

    And the only solution for Africa's poverty? Why, trade and productivity! What else could possibly feed them? How else can a man possibly feed himself without productive work?

  30. @bluebeard2
    Yes, thank you — you just exposed yourself as the deception in this world as you perceive and believe yourself to be more than other and therefore you have the right to keep your nice life and fuck everyone else who wasnt born in the priviled position that you were born in.

    you are the worst economist I have ever comunicated with — you clearly do not understand how poor nations were created — The richer ones EXPLOITED THEM and they are absolutly corrupt.

  31. @Kirilltraceur Really lol? I'd love to hear your reasoning behind that conclusion. I know I might be going out on a limb by making such a bold statement here, but sex and babies just might be linked somehow.

  32. @ijjesus
    No, no, you misunderstand. We are arguing over what is a basic law of the universe. No work = no food. Food isn't a right. Water isn't a right. Why? Because rights are created by people. To feed people, people must do work. Food does not come from nowhere. The fields must be tilled and watered. Fertilised. Harvested. Food stored, transported. This all requires work.

    It's a law of nature that one must work to eat, from bacteria to humans.

  33. @ijjesus
    Oh, I don't disagree that there was great fortune in my birth. But I'm saying that charity isn't the answer. The poorest parts of Africa must be made *productive* in order to end poverty. This is what we're seeing happen in China and India.

    I know of the empires and their history to the colonies. And it was exploitation. But none of that will help us raise the poorest nations out of poverty.

  34. @bluebeard2
    I never said we do not need to work. Obviously we must work.
    I say – we must value Life, Work/Time Equaly!
    Is it so hard to understand this?
    Stop justifying and excuse the abuse of life in this world! That is all that you are doing.

    The amount of 'money' (which is fictional) required to provide the basic necessities to all being is a FRACTION of the global economy — You should know this — put the numbers together and see for yourself.

  35. @bluebeard2
    Equal money is not charity! Charity is a useless attemp of "saving the poor" to make those who have money feel good about giving it

    YES – you will have to give your "good life away" – and that is why this idea is not pleasing you – you want to keep it for yourself, you fear losing what you have

    If you had NOTHING you would, in a second, agree with such an equal system.
    So, with more than 3Bilion people on less than $2/day – I have many people agreeing with me. U are the minority!

  36. @ijjesus
    But I'm saying that equal value of time is a fiction. Obviously the value of each persons time is not equal. A doctors time is more valuable than a storeman or dockworker. An engineer is more productive than a bricklayer. And even within the profession, each person has differing levels of talent and hard work.

    So, in the face of this, you ask compulsory charity. I say no. You may not help yourself to the fruits of my labours. Nor may anyone else.

  37. @ijjesus
    My point is that there is not a global 'pile' of wealth, produced annually, to be distributed as you see fit. If you take from those who produce, they will produce less. The pile would shrink.

    And just because 'most of the world' would agree with you because it's in their own self-interest doesn't make it right. Africa would be less poor if the wars and corruption stopped and rule of law returned. Then they could embark on the path that India and China are on. Kleptocracy isn't the way

  38. @bluebeard2
    … you are a lost case. All you see is money.
    You keep on justifying all the nonsense that exists in this world — still not considering other being as EQUAL TO YOU. This is your demise.

    Equality and Oneness are the Principles that rules existence — This world is fucked because the human is fucked: Equal and One.
    War murder rape child abuse violence — all of this exists because we PERCEIVE ourselves to be separate.

    We have no choice – Heaven is manifested EQUALITY and ONENESS

  39. @IntellSpire
    Being poor is subjective? No – grab a dictionary and get to know the definition of poor: Poor = not having money/almost no money at all.
    Is it irrelevant how much money one has to be happy or not? really? you are deluded!! Give all your money away, give all you have away — then we'll see if you say that.
    People constantly coming out of poverty — you make it seem like we do not have to do anything because things will be sorted out by themselves… that is not so.

  40. @IntellSpire
    If we exclude china, even though the percentage of poor people in the world has decreased over the last 100/200 years, it does not mean that there are less poor people in the world — because you have to take in account that the population is also rising — do the research and the math.
    The world bank expects 100 million people to get into poverty because of the recent global food crisis and rising cost of energy.
    Google: poverty around the world — and see globalissue-org

  41. @IntellSpire
    I understand what you mean — but you are not poor — poor people do not have access to internet.
    All the money I make/have is also to pay all the bills — I do not save money at all for the moment. But I am not poor: I had 3 meals today, I have a roof over my head, I was well educated and I have access to free/partialy free health (fortunatly).
    I am not poor. But I am far far far from actually having a substancial amount of money.
    If everyone had as much as I have = ALL GOOD!

  42. @SuperiorApostate
    google: Basic Income Grant. There videos of this on youtube also.
    Also search Professors Richard Wilkinson from the Equality Trust — their study shows how EQUALITY is the best for all.

    EQUALITY is the solution!
    This does not mean that we will not be INDIVIDUAL. It simply means that we have EQUAL access to our basic necessities.

  43. What was that he said at 4:34? "Nature is so much more powerful than we are." So what was his original point for doing this? Sounds like he is contradicting himself on this whole project.

  44. @ijjesus
    There are two separate claims here.

    The first is an "is" statement. Clearly, people are *not* equal. Talent, dedication, intelligence, training, family connections, society of birth, productivity, luck, none of these are equal.

    The second is an "ought" statement. Ought people be equal? Why? All you've given me are assertions that it is so, but why is it so? I think equality is a nice to have, but there are other virtues in competition with it, so there is a trade off.

  45. @bluebeard2
    All breath, all eat, all shit and piss, and all die — your physical body is from the earth.

    Most of inequalities existent in this world are man made — not fact.

    You still think that you are more than others — you still keep on justifying the death of millions every year because "they are less than you" – you think…

    you are in for a surprise.
    Death will reveal. Death is the prof that all are equal.

  46. @BobbyxRevolution

    Yeah, that's right. All we need is a shift in perceptions, and then all of our problems just suddenly go away. That's so brilliant, I now see the light.

    Fuck you, dumbass. This was nothing but environmental propaganda to make people (and apparently children, too) more comfortable with environmental fascism, especially when it comes to population control. And, no, I'm not a climate denier, but I do see a dispute as to the true impact of global warming.

  47. @BobbyxRevolution

    Fascists like you don't give a fuck about the individuals or economics (which is ironic because economics functions very similar to ecology), but that sidetracks my original point that this talk was an absolute retarded emotional appeal to use government force. As you can see, I'm not the only one who picked up on this.

    If you want to talk science, I'm game, but don't give me nonsense about swimming in difficult conditions being equivalent to population growth.

  48. @ijjesus
    Yes, we are physically almost exactly the same. We do all eat, shit and die. But to say that a person is about eating, shitting and dying is like saying that an automobile is about filling it with petrol, incinerating petrol, and blowing out carbon dioxide and particulates.

    Well, I'm fortunate to live in the west, yes. But many parts of the world have never known prosperity. And free food isn't going to fix them.

  49. it's so clear when someone's speaking with voice that not radiates straight from him – no charisma – and now I'll rise climate change awareness by symbolically putting an African banana on my computer

  50. Get a job! Spoiled rich boy,Im inspired to say your a fkn idiot. Pt 1 had to swim a frozen lake 3 times, Die (thats total bullsit) to realize Oh ! Shit 3 Biln ,6 Biln, 9Biln, we’re screwed!. I could do math like that age 7.
    Pt 2 he didn’t have a second point other than to tell you to think of something yourself and then do it. So he’s shit at maths and likes telling people what to do . What a Fkn idiot!!!

    Peace out m/

  51. @tyrannicoystercult
    Part 1:
    Equal money implyed that everyone has the equal right to life — its about changing the value we give to money — its about VALUYING LIFE EQUALY. The ''money'' is the means by which we guarantee that.
    Life was given to you for FREE – you had to do nothing! So – a FREE equal amount of money to guarantee your phisical existence is a simple solution to stop the abuse of life in the name of greed and self -interest.

  52. @tyrannicoystercult
    Part 2:
    The resources on this planet were already here before we ''arrived''. They belong to no one — yet some believe they have the right to claim it their own and use it for their own personal gain — this is fucked up.
    All the resources of the planet must be equaly AVAILABLE to everyone acording to necessity.
    Of course — we will work — otherwise we'll starve — thus we keep on being responsible for ourselves — in fact we we'll be responsible for everyone's well being

  53. @tyrannicoystercult
    Part 3:
    Yes– currency exchange is the mean by which the ''stronger nations'' keep the ''weaker nations'' as they are — divide and conquer. Making some less to be more.
    With a global currency this would not happen and the amount of hours you work in zimbabwe or in england is valued equally.
    Its up to us to make this work. The belief that is impossible will have us never try.
    There is a way – there is always a way if that is our will.

  54. @tyrannicoystercult
    Part 4:
    we have gone to the depth of the oceans. we have been to the moon. We have looked into the darkest places of the universe and we realized that they are full of galaxies… don't tell me we cannot feed and provide propper education and health care for everyone on this earth — this is the least we owe to ourselves.
    TIll then we'll never ever be able to sort out all the other problems such as climate change, polution etc etc…
    First we walk — then we'll run and jump!

  55. freezing expands? i thought heat expanded and cold condensed… wich is why ice is denser than water and thus floats and also the reason hot air is lighter than cold air..

  56. @scrubjay93 Fool. People who would raise their children responsibly should be having the MOST children, not the least. You damned suicidal fool.

  57. @scrubjay93 Suicidal fool. People who would raise their children responsibly should be having the MOST children, not the least. This guy should have dozens of kids, an alpha male as he is. Beware of using the term "we" when OTHERS are the problem. If you are part of the solution, expand your existence and presence in the future, i.e. offspring.

  58. @hughtub This guy isn't an alpha male–he's an egotistical jerk. You can be sure he will have children exactly for this reason. Have two and be done with it is all I am saying.

  59. how can 59 people not like this its so inspiring. we all can learn from this man. learn how to reach are own gaols and learn how are life can aid the plaint rather than hurt it

  60. how can 59 people not like this its so inspiring. we all can learn from this man. learn how to reach are own gaols and learn how are life can aid the plaint rather than hurt it

  61. Where I come from, everyone knows Mt. Everest lies in Nepal, but reading your comment i realized most Americans need that information.

  62. @Lex_Ka The speaker is correct: Water expands when it's frozen (which is great for us b/c otherwise there wouldn't be life on Earth!). Ice is less dense than water, and this is why ice floats in water. It is due to hydrogen bonds, rather than to O-H bonds. Most solids sink when immersed in their respective liquid forms. I know your post was from four years ago, but I'm just now seeing it. Perhaps enough time has passed that you're ready to rewatch this Tedx Talk… It was so good! 🙂

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